The model-based activation workflow¶
This workflow implements a two-step – registration, followed by activation – process for user signup.
Use of the model-based workflow is discouraged
The model-based activation workflow was originally the only
workflow built in to
django-registration, and later was the
default one. However, it no longer represents the best practice for
registration with modern versions of Django, and so it continues to
be included only for backwards compatibility with existing
If you’re setting up a new installation and want a two-step process with activation, it’s recommended you use the HMAC activation workflow instead.
Also, note that this workflow was previously found in
registration.backends.default, and imports from that location
still function in
django-registration 2.1 but now raise
deprecation warnings. The correct location going forward is
Default behavior and configuration¶
To make use of this workflow, simply add
registration to your
manage.py migrate to install its model,
and include the URLconf
registration.backends.model_activation.urls at whatever location
you choose in your URL hierarchy. For example:
from django.conf.urls import include, url urlpatterns = [ # Other URL patterns ... url(r'^accounts/', include('registration.backends.model_activation.urls')), # More URL patterns ... ]
This workflow makes use of the following settings:
By default, this workflow uses
registration.forms.RegistrationForm as its form class for
user registration; this can be overridden by passing the keyword
form_class to the registration view.
Two views are provided:
ActivationView, respectively, and
implement the two-step registration/activation process.
Upon successful registration – not activation – the user will be
redirected to the URL pattern named
Upon successful activation, the user will be redirected to the URL
This workflow uses the same templates and contexts as the HMAC activation workflow, which is covered in the quick-start guide. Refer to the quick-start guide for documentation on those templates and their contexts.
How account data is stored for activation¶
During registration, a new instance of the user model (by default,
django.contrib.auth.models.User – see the custom
user documentation for notes on using a different
model) is created to represent the new account, with the
field set to
False. An email is then sent to the email address of
the account, containing a link the user must click to activate the
account; at that point the
is_active field is set to
the user may log in normally.
Activation is handled by generating and storing an activation key in the database, using the following model:
A simple representation of the information needed to activate a new user account. This is not a user profile; it simply provides a place to temporarily store the activation key and determine whether a given account has been activated.
Has the following fields:
OneToOneFieldto the user model, representing the user account for which activation information is being stored.
CharField, storing the activation key for the account. Initially, the activation key is the hex digest of a SHA1 hash; after activation, this is reset to
Additionally, one class attribute exists:
A constant string used as the value of
activation_keyfor accounts which have been activated.
And the following methods:
Determines whether this account’s activation key has expired, and returns a boolean (
Falseotherwise). Uses the following algorithm:
ACTIVATED, the account has already been activated and so the key is considered to have expired.
- Otherwise, the date of registration (obtained from the
user) is compared to the current date; if the span between them is greater than the value of the setting
ACCOUNT_ACTIVATION_DAYS, the key is considered to have expired.
Return type: bool
Sends an activation email to the address of the account.
The activation email will make use of two templates:
registration/activation_email.txt, which are used for the subject of the email and the body of the email, respectively. Each will receive the following context:
- The value of
- The number of days the user has to activate, taken from the
- The user registering for the new account.
- An object representing the site on which the account was
registered; depending on whether
django.contrib.sitesis installed, this may be an instance of either
django.contrib.sites.models.Site(if the sites application is installed) or
django.contrib.sites.models.RequestSite(if not). Consult the documentation for the Django sites framework for details regarding these objects’ interfaces.
Note that, to avoid header-injection vulnerabilities, the rendered output of
registration/activation_email_subject.txtwill be forcibly condensed to a single line.
Parameters: site (
django.contrib.sites.models.RequestSite) – An object representing the site on which account was registered.
RegistrationProfile has a custom manager
This manager provides several convenience methods for creating and working with instances of
activation_keyand, if valid, activates the associated account by setting its
True. To prevent re-activation of accounts, the
RegistrationProfilefor the account will be set to
RegistrationProfile.ACTIVATEDafter successful activation.
Returns the user instance representing the account if activation is successful,
Parameters: activation_key (string, a 40-character SHA1 hexdigest) – The activation key to use for the activation. Return type: user or bool
Removes expired instances of
RegistrationProfile, and their associated user accounts, from the database. This is useful as a periodic maintenance task to clean out accounts which registered but never activated.
Accounts to be deleted are identified by searching for instances of
RegistrationProfilewith expired activation keys and with associated user accounts which are inactive (have their
is_activefield set to
False). To disable a user account without having it deleted, simply delete its associated
Userwhich does not have an associated
RegistrationProfilewill not be deleted.
A custom management command is provided which will execute this method, suitable for use in cron jobs or other scheduled maintenance tasks:
create_inactive_user(form, site, send_email=True)¶
Creates a new, inactive user account and an associated instance of
RegistrationProfile, sends the activation email and returns the new
Userobject representing the account.
- form – A bound instance of a subclass of
RegistrationFormrepresenting the (already-validated) data the user is trying to register with.
- site – An object representing the site on which the
account is being registered. :type site:
django.contrib.sites.models.RequestSite:param send_email: If
True, the activation email will be sent to the account (by calling
False, no email will be sent (but the account will still be inactive). :type send_email: bool :rtype: user
- form – A bound instance of a subclass of
Creates and returns a
RegistrationProfileinstance for the account represented by
RegistrationProfilecreated by this method will have its
activation_keyset to a SHA1 hash generated from a combination of the account’s username and a random salt.
Parameters: user (
User) – The user account; an instance of